Infectious Diseases Clinic

 Infectious Diseases & travel Vaccination



Taj Mahal, India.
The Falls' main cataract in full flow. � Go2Africa 2006
Victoria Falls, Zambia  & Zimbabwe.


What is malaria?

Can malaria be prevented?
How to prevent malaria infection?
Who is the VFR travelers?
Why are the VFR traveler at greater risk?
Do VFR travelers need any special precautions? 
Is the malaria contagious?

What is malaria? 
 Malaria is a disease, caused by a parasite, Plasmodium species, acquired by mosquito bites  by infected Anopheles (mosquito) in the endemic regions. Infected person presents with shaking chills and intermittent fevers. Sometimes it can be serious and may cause 
death in days.

Can malaria be prevented? 
 Athough there are no measures, which can prevent malaria infection with 100% efficacy, it can be reduced to greater extent by preventive measures including appropriate prophylactic medication. So it is recommended to make an appointment with a travel clinic or  infectious diseases specialist at least 4 weeks before your departure date.

 How to prevent malaria infection? 
There are interventions that can prevent malaria infection depending on the risk assessment:
   1. Prevent mosquito bites:
         a) Avoid outbreaks.
         b) Be aware of peak exposure times and places. Mosquito bite can happen anytime of the day. Anopheles mosquitos  
                     are  most active in  dawn and dusk hours, or in the evening after dark.
         c) Wear appropriate clothing. Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, boots, and hats. Tuck in shirts, tuck pants into 
                     socks, and wear closed shoes instead of sandals.  
         d) Insecticides and spatial repellents. May use repellents or insecticides, such as DEET, Picaridin, Oil of lemon 
                    eucalyptus  (OLE) and IR3535. 
         e) Bed nets.

2. Prophylactic medicine: Anti-malarial (Chemoprophylaxis)
         a) Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone)
         b) Chloroquine
         c) Doxycycline
         d) Mefloquine (Lariam)
         e) Primaquin (check G6PD level).

For the most appropriate antimalarial prophylactic medication, get consultation with us (infectious diseases clinic) at (856) 725 6776 or any infectious diseases specialst or travel  clinic.

 Who is the VFR travelers?  
 VFR means "Visits Friends and Relatives". Certain travelers have greater risks of malaria infection, and the highest risk is involved with the travelers from nonendemic countries, going to their native countries, to VFR. They feel themself immune to the malaria and ignore preventive measures. However, they are unaware that their immunity is lost very quickly.

As per CDC, half of the malaria cases in the US comes from the first and second generation immigrants, who went to the country of their origin to 

 Why are the VFR traveler at greater risk?  
 There are multiple factors contributing in putting the VFR travelers at a greater risk for malaria infection.
       1. The duration of travel is longer than usual as in business or for leisure, so the exposure to the risk is longer. 
       2. The VFR travelers stay in local environnment, in houses, rather than well equipped hotels, which are expensive.
       3. the VFR travelers usually do not schedule pre-travel visits; and do not use preventive measures including repellants/insectisides and chemoprophylaxis.
       4. The VFR travelers feel that they are immune and less likely to get affected as they grew the endemic country and they will have mild disease easily treatable with medicines in the country of their origin. The fact is that they have lost the immunity and are at greater risk of infection and the complications.

 Do VFR travelers need any special precautions?  
 No, The VFR travelers have to use the recommended preventive measures.

 Is the malaria contagious? 
 No. Malaria cannot be transmitted via touching or saliva or air. It is transmitted by mosquito bite.

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